PROPAGANDA FOR CHANGE is a project created by the students of Behaviour Change (ps359) and Professor Thomas Hills at the Psychology Department of the University of Warwick. This work was supported by funding from Warwick's Institute for Advanced Teaching and Learning.
This advertisement by Hovis, a UK brand of flour and bread, was
released in 2008 and used powerful storytelling to evoke strong emotions in the
viewers by documenting the 122 years of British history since the brands
Storytelling as an influential technique is used very effectively
in the advert in which it tells the tale of a boy buying a loaf of bread and witnessing
key moments of British history as he makes his way back home. Evidence for this technique
comes from Harris (2008), who demonstrated that higher levels of story in an
adverts message can lead to higher levels of response in Self-referencing processing measures as well as likability and ad-induced
The advert by taking the viewer through time in British history illustrates
how ‘Hovis’ has always been a British
product and has been there for its consumers in both good times and during
hardship. This association of their brand with British history inspires
feelings of patriotism in the consumer and will encourage them to buy domestic goods,
in this case, Hovis bread. Research by Han (1988), found that ‘patriotic
emotion’ had a significant effect on purchase intent, in his study 212 consumers were asked to evaluate 2 categories of
domestic and foreign-made products, 116 TVs and 96 automobiles. It was found
that patriotic emotion led to purchase intent being greater for domestic
products than foreign-made products.
M. (1988). The role of consumer patriotism in the choice of domestic versus
foreign products. Journal of Advertising Research, 28(3), 25-32.
M. A. B. (2008). Getting carried away: Understanding memory and consumer
processing of perceived storytelling in advertisements. Dissertation
Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, 68,
This Spanish beer ‘’Estrella Damn’’ advertisement uses the story of a
young man in an idyllic and enviable holiday to discretely introduce the
product. As the man travels through amazing sites and meets beautiful friends,
the act of drinking an ‘’Estrella Damn’’ beer is highlighted as the perfect connection
between all events and people. The attractiveness technique can be observed not
only in the main character of the storyline and the women that surround him (DeBono
& Telesca, 1990); but also in the storyline itself, set in the beautiful context
of Serra de Tramuntana in Mallorca (a world
an unforgettable background song makes the viewers’ remember the advertisement and
thus the product.Alexomanolaki,
Loveday and Kennett (2006) show in their study that music is indeed a competent
method of facilitating implicit learning and recall of the advertised product.
In order to test this hypothesis they carried out a series of experiments with
both musicians and non-musician subjects.
In the experiment an unknown advert was
included along three other adverts and in the middle of a television show. The
target advert was produced in four different audio versions: jingle; music and voiceover;
instrumental music; and sound effects and voiceover (which functioned as the
control version). Later, an overall memory test for the television show, an indirect
and a direct memory test fort the product were completed. Results from the indirect memory test show that all
groups selected more words that were related to the target advert; meanwhile
the control group chose more amount of neutral words. The experiment concluded that both
musicians and non-musicians, under non-attentive conditions, have reinforced
perception of the advert because of the music. DeBono, K.G, Telesca, C. (1990). The Influence of Source Physical
Attractiveness on Advertising Effectiveness: A Functional Perspective, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, pp.
Alexomanolaki, M., Loveday,
C. & Kennett, C. (2006). Music and Memory in advertising; Music as a device
of implicit learning and recall, ICMPC-ESCOM, pp. 1190-1198.
Created by: Charlotte Hoyland Margaret Olaniyan Deborah Willis Reference: Vanden Auweele, Y., Rzewnicki, R., & Van Mele, V. (1997). Reasons for not exercising and exercise intentions: A study of middle-aged sedentary adults. Journal of sports sciences, 15, 151-165
Very often we see people begging in the street. Very
different ways of begging can be observed, such as playing instruments, using
kids/animals/ disabilities, plain begging or in some cases humor. In the link
above we can observe several examples of begging using humor to attract
attention and increase possibility of a donation.
An empirical study from Geuens and Pelsmacker (2002)
provides evidence that using humor in persuasive messages does increase
positive affect towards the advertised product. There were
510 participants in this study and both humorous and non-humorous advertising
stimuli were used to show that humor has a positive impact on the attitudes of
both high and low Need For Cognition-individuals, but that attitude formation
takes place in different way. In individuals low in NFC a direct effect of
humor on attitudes is found, while for individuals high in NFC and indirect
influence via biased cognition is found.
Eight fictitious advertisements were made in four
different products: paper handkerchiefs (low in involvement, informational
product) insurance (high in involvement, informational product) a snack (low in
involvement, transformational product) and holidays (high in involvement,
transformational product). Two versions were used: humorous with slogans and
pictures, and non-humorous just with slogans. Perceived humor, need for
cognition and attitudes towards ad were all measured. Need for cognition didn’t
exert any influence on number of positive ad cognitions but high
NFC-individuals did have more negative cognitions towards ad. Use of humor had
a positive impact on all affective responses increasing the number of positive
cognitions towards ads and decreasing the number of negative ones.
The results from this experiment could be also relevant for begging, as the
humor would increase the positive response towards the person and hence the
possibility of the passerby giving money.
M. &De Pelsmacker, P. (2002). The
role of humor in the Persuasion of individuals varying in need for cognition. Advances in Consumer
Research, Volume 29, pp 51-55.